Judo / Jiu-Jitsu Terminology

 

A

 

Abara - Ribs

Age Uke (揚げ受け ) - Rising block 

Ago (顎 ) - Jaw

Ani-deshi (兄弟子 ) - Senior student in the dojo (Lit: Big brother student)

Ashi -Foot, leg

Ashi gyaku - Ankle

Ashi waza (足技・業 ) - Foot and leg techniques

Atama (頭 ) - Head

Atemi (当身 ) - Striking, Strike to a vital area

Atemi waza (当身業・技 ) - Striking Techniques

Asoko (あそこ ) – Over there

Ayumi Ashi - Ordinary pattern of walking

 

 

B

 

Bitei Kotsu (尾骨 ) - Coccyx

Bokken (木剣 ) – Wooden sword

Bokuto (木刀 ) - Another term for a wooden sword

Bojutsu (棒術 ) - Staff-art. Sometimes taught in classical jujutsu schools, depending on the system

Budo (武道 ) - Martial ways (literally "way(s) of war)

Bugei (武芸 ) - Martial crafts (Another way of referring to Japanese martial arts)

Bujutsu (武術 ) - Martial arts (Yet another interchangable term for Japanese martial art) 

 

C

 

Choku (直 ) - Straight (Modern usage of this word in Japanese is "Massugu".

Choku Tsuki (直突き ) - Straight punch

Chototsu – Atemi point between the eyes

Chu (中 ) - Middle

Chudan (中段 ) - Mid level

 

D

 

Dan (段 ) - Level

De Ashi Barai (出足払い ) - Advancing Foot Sweep 

Deshi (弟子 ) - Student of a system

Do/Michi (道 ) - (the) Way

Dojo (道場 ) - School or training hall for studying the way

Dori (Toru) (取り・捕り ) - To grab or capture. 

 

E

 

Empi Uchi (エンピ・燕飛打ち ) - Elbow strike (The term comes from karatedo and doesn't have really much connection to jujutsu. It literally means swallow flying.)

Ensho - Round heel

Eri (襟 ) – collar or lapel

 

F

 

Furimi (振り身 ) - Avoidance

Fusegi (防ぎ ) - Escapes/Defences

 

G

 

Gaeshi-waza - Counter techniques

Gedan (下段 ) - Low level (below belt)

Gedan Tsuki (下段突き ) - Punch to groin

Genkotsu-uchi (拳骨打ち ) - Another term for Uraken. 

Gewan (下腕 ) - Forearm

Gi - Training Uniform (abbreviated from "dogi" of "keikogi")

Go-no-sen (後の先 ) - Responsive initiative

Gyaku (逆 )- Reverse (Can also refer to some Kansetsu waza where the joint is reversed)

Gyaku Tsuki (逆突き ) - Reverse punch

 

H

 

Hadaka Jime (裸締め ) - Naked strangle

Haisoku (背足 ) – Instep

Hajime (始め ) – Start/Begin

Hana (鼻 ) - Nose

Hantei - Referee call for judge's decision

Happo no Kuzushi - Kuzushi in 8 directions

Hara - Stomach

Harai (払い ) - Sweeping 

Heiko - Parallel

Henka (変化 ) - Variation

Hichu (秘中 ) - Windpipe

Hidari (左 ) - Left

Hiji - Elbow

Hiji Ate (肘当て ) - Elbow strike

Hike-Wake - A draw

Hiki – Pull, tug

Hikite - Pulling hand 

Hiraken Tsuki (平拳突き ) - Horizontal fist punch

Hiza (膝 ) - Knee

Hiza Ate (膝当て ) - Knee strike

Hiza geri (膝蹴り ) - Knee strike/kick

Hyoshi (拍子 ) - Timing/rythm

 

I

 

Ichi (一 ) - One

Ippon (一本 ) - One Full point in competition

Ippon Seoi Nage (一本背負い投げ ) - One arm shoulder throw

Irimi (入り身 ) - Entering

Irimi nage (入り身投げ ) - Entering throw

 

J

 

Jigotai - Defensive posture

Jikan - Referee call to stop the clock

Jime (絞) - Strangle

Jinzo (腎臓 ) - Kidney

Jiyu Kumite (自由組み手 ) - Free sparring

Jodan (上段 ) - High/Upper level

Jodan Uke (上段受け ) - High block

Ju-no-kata - Forms of gentleness 

Judogi - Judo practice uniform

Judoka - Judoist

Juji (十字 ) - Cross (Literal translation: Figure ten. In Japanese, ten is 十 )

Juji Gatame (十字固め ) - Cross lock/armbar 

Juji Jime (十字締め ) - Cross choke

Juji Uke (十字受け)- Cross block

Jujutsu (柔術 ) - The gentle art/supple art/flexible art/Pliant art/soft art 

Jujutsuka (柔術家 ) - Practitioner of Jujutsu 

Jutsu (術 ) - Art or technique

 

K

 

Kacchu-Yawara (甲冑柔 ) - Armoured close combat, where most jujutsu systems got their techniques, very few atemi used, lots of nagewaza, kansetsuwaza & the use of daggers to finish the enemy

Kachinuki Shiai - Old style, winner continues / "king of the hill" competition

Kaeshi (返し技・業 )- Countering Techniques. (Kaeshi also means to turn) 

Kagi (鈎 )- Hook

Kagi Tsuki - Hook punch

Kaishu (開手 ) - Open hand

Kaiten (回転 ) - Rotation

Kakato (踵 ) - Heel

Kake - Completion of technique, The point at which a throw will take it's maximal effect 

Kamae (構え ) - Posture (or stance)

Kani basami (蟹鋏 ) - Crab scissors 

Kansetsu (関節 ) - Joint, Joint Locking

Kansetsu waza (関節技・業 ) - Joint Locking techniques

Kari (刈り ) - Reap (Changed to gari when used with a prefix word)

Kasumi (霞 ) - Temple

Kata (形・型 ) - Forms, Pre arranged stylized techniques

Kata (肩 ) - Shoulder

Kata-gatame (肩固め ) - Shoulder pin

Kata-guruma (肩車 ) - Shoulder wheel (fireman's lift throw)

Kata-ha-jime (片羽締め ) - Single wing strangle

Katame (固め ) - Lock/Hold

Katame Waza (固め技・業 ) - Joint locking/immobilizing techniques.

Katana (刀 ) - Japanese sword.

Katsusatsu – Spine between the shoulder blades

Kappo/Katsu (活法・活 ) - Resucitation & revival techniques

Kenka Yotsu - Fighting Grip

Keri (蹴り ) - Kick

Keri waza (蹴り技・業 ) - Kicking techniques

Kesa (袈裟 ) - Scarf

Kesa Gatame (袈裟固め ) - Scarf hold

Kesa-Giri (袈裟切り ) - Sash cut - A diagonal cut with a Japanese sword from shoulder to hip. 

Kiai (気合 ) - Shout with vital energy

Kime (決め ) - Focus 

Kime-no-kata - Teaches attack & defence in combat situations

Kime waza (極め技・業 ) - Another term for joint locking techniques

Kinteki (金的 ) – Testicles

Kiwostuke - Attention

Kiri (切り ) - Cut

Ko (小 ) - Minor/small

Kodachi (小太刀 ) - Short sword. (Alternative term: Wakizashi or Shoto)

Kogusoku (小具足 ) - A term used in stead of jujutsu, where both practicioners use shortswords or daggers.

Kogeki-Seyo - Request for judoka to be more active

Kohai (後輩 ) - Beginner or junior student in the dojo

Koka - Less than a yuko, (One point in Freestyle Judo)

Ko-soto-gari/gake (小外刈り・掛け )- Minor/small outer reap/prop

Kote Gaeshi (小手返し ) - Wrist turnout lock/throw

Ko-uchi-gari/gake (小内刈り・掛け ) - Minor inner reap/prop

Koshi (腰 )- Hip (when used first in a throw name)

Koshi guruma (腰車 ) - Hip wheel throw

Koshi jime (腰  ) - Hip strangle choke

Kubi (首 ) - Neck

Kubi Nage (首投げ ) - Neck throw

Kumite (組み手 ) - Sparring

Kumi-Uchi (組討ち ) - Another term used instead of jujutsu

Kumikata - Gripping methods

Kusarigama (鎖鎌 ) - Sickle & weighted chain. Sometimes taught in classical jujutsu, depending on the system.

Kuzure - Modified - hold

Kuzushi (崩し ) - Unbalancing, Unbalancing the opponent

Kyu (級 ) - Coloured belt

 

L

 

M 

 

Ma-ai (間合 ) - Combative Distancing

Mae (前 ) - Forward, front

Mae geri (前蹴り ) - Front kick

Mae-Mawari Sabaki - Fron-turn movement Control

Mae-Mawari Ukemi - Tumbling forward

Mae Sabaki - Front movement control

Mae-tobi-geri (前飛び蹴り ) - Jumping front kick

Mae Ukemi - Falling forward

Makkikomi (巻き込み ) - Winding throw

Massugu (真っ直ぐ ) – straight ahead

Mata - Groin

Mate (待て ) - Wait

Mawashi-geri (回し・廻し蹴り ) - Roundhouse kick

Me (目 ) – Eyes

Migi (右 ) - Right

Mikazuki (三日月 ) - Crescent

Momo - Thigh

Mune (胸 ) - Chest

Mune-gatame (胸固め ) - Chest hold

Munen mushin – Striking without conscience

Mokuso (目閉 ) – Meditation

Mudansha (無段者 ) – members with kyu grades

Mushin (無心 ) – No-mindedness

 

N

 

Naiwan (内腕 ) - Upper arm

Nage (投げ ) - Throw

Nage-no-kata (投の形 ) - Throwing kata (usually used to refer to the Kodokan Nage-no-kata)

Nage waza (投げ技・業 ) - Throwing methods

Naginata (薙刀・長刀 ) - A long polearm with a large cutting blade.

Naka - Center 

Newaza (寝技・業 ) - Ground techniques

Ni (二 ) - Two

Nidan (二段 ) - 2nd Dan

Nigiri (握り ) - Grip (Gyakute nigiri -reversehand grip - Junte Nigiri - Normal grip)

 

O

 

O (大 ) - Major/Large

Obi - belt

Ogoshi (大腰 ) - Major/Large hip throw

O-guruma (大車 ) - Major/Large Wheel

Omote (表 ) - Front or surface (Can also refer to basic skill sets of techniques in classical jujutsu schools)

O-soto-gari/gake (大外刈・掛け ) - Major/Large outer reap/prop

O-soto-guruma (大外車 ) - Major/Large outer wheel

O-soto-makkikomi (大外巻き込み ) - Major/Large outer winding throw

O-soto-otoshi (大外落とし ) - Major outer drop

O-uchi-gari/gake (大内刈・掛け ) - Major inner reap/prop

Osaekomi - Referee call to begin timing of hold

Osaekomi-Toketa - Stop timing of hold

Otagai-ne-rei (お互いに礼 ) - Mutual bow to all assembled

 

P

 

Q

 

R

 

Randori (乱捕り ) - Free practice, Sparring

Randori-no-kata - Form/Demonstration of randoriwaza

Randoriwaza - Techniques for free practice

Re (礼 ) - Bow

Rei (礼 ) - To bow

Reigi (礼儀 ) - Manners

Reiho (礼法 ) - Etiquette methods. (From dojo to dojo the reiho depends on the school of jujutsu being taught. Usually, it's to the Shinzen, then to the teacher and then to each other.) 

Renraku-waza (連絡技・業 ) - Combination techniques (Lit: Connected techniques)

Ritsu rei (立礼 ) – Standing salutation, standing bow

Roku (六 ) - Six

Rokushakubo (六尺棒 ) - A six-foot staff. Generically called a bo, but this is the proper term.

Ryu (流 ) - School/system of Martial Art. (e.g. Kito-ryu, Takenouchi-ryu, Takagi-ryu) 

Ryuha (流派 ) - A collective term for different schools 

 

 

S

 

San (三 ) - Three

Sasae ( ) - Floating

Seiza (正座 ) - Formal kneeling position

Sen-no-sen (先の先 ) - Simultaneous Initiative. One of the three classical timings in budo - Sen sen no sen, sen no sen and go no sen.

Sensen-no-sen (先々の先 ) - Preemptive initiative.

Sensei (先生 ) - Teacher, instructor 

Sensei-ni-rei (先生に礼 ) - Bow to instructor

Seiken (正拳 ) - Horizontal fist

Sempai (先輩 ) - Senior student(s) in the dojo

Seoi (背負い ) - To carry on the shoulder

Seoi-nage (背負い投げ ) - Shoulder throw

Seoi-otoshi (背負い落とし ) - Shoulder drop

Shi (四 ) - Four (note: yon is usually four, shi is only used in certain situations because "Shi" also means "Death")

Shiai (試合 ) - Contest, Competition or match

Shichi (七 ) - Seven (note: similar to "shi", "shichi" is only used in certain situations, otherwise "nana" if more commonly used. The numerical pronunciation for shi is the same as death, therefore, unlucky.)

Shihan (師範 ) - Master (6th Dan and up, style dependent)

Shikko-ho ( ) - Knee walking (Something only done in Daito-ryu aikijujutsu and aikido, not really done in classical jujutsu, unless it's a new addition.) 

Shime (締め ) - Choke/strangle

Shime-waza (締め技・業 ) - Strangulation techniques

Shintai - Moving forwards, sideways & backwards

Shisei (姿勢 ) - Posture (Nothing to do with combative stances)

Shizentai - Natural Posture

Shinzen-Ni-Rei (神前に礼 ) - Bowing to the Kamiza (Shinto altar) at the front of the dojo

Shote (掌手 ) - Palm heel strike

Shomen (正面 ) - Front (Also used to refer to the front of the dojo)

Shomen-Ni-Rei (正面に礼 ) - Bowing to the front of the dojo

Shuriken (手裏剣 ) - Throwing blades sometimes taught in classical jujutsu systems.

Sode - Sleeve

Sono-Mama - Stop action; command to freeze

Sokuto (足刀 ) - Blade of the foot

Sokuto-Geri (足刀蹴り ) - Side kick using the blade of the foot

Soto (外 ) - Outer/outside

Sukui-nage (掬い投げ ) - Scooping throw

Sutemi (捨て身 ) - Sacrifice

Sutemi-Waza (捨て身技・業 ) - Sacrifice techniques

Suwatte – sit down

 

T

 

Tai (体 ) - The Chinese reading for body (Usually in Japanese it's pronounced Karada unless it's used in combination with another word, then the Chinese reading is used) 

Tai-otoshi (体落とし ) - Body drop throw

Tai-sabaki (体捌き ) - Body Control, Body Movement

Tanto (短刀 ) - Dagger (one of the weapons jujutsu was originally designed to defend against)

Tanto-Dori (短刀捕り ) - Defences or disarms against a dagger weilding enemy.

Tatami (畳 ) - Mat

Tate (立て ) - Vertical (Can also mean to stand)

Te (手 ) - Hand, arm

Te-guruma (手車 ) - Hand wheel

Tebuki - Wrist 

Teisho – Heel of hand

Te-waza (手技・業 ) - Hand techniques

Tessen (鉄扇 ) - Iron fan sometimes used in certain classical jujutsu schools to augment a technique

Tawara-gaeshi (俵返し ) - Rice bail throw

Tokui waza – favorite technique

Toque waza - One's favorite/best technique

Tori (捕り・取り ) - The executor of a technique in partnered practice.

Torite (捕手 ) - Another term used instead of jujutsu

Tsuki (突き ) - Punch or thrust with a weapon. 

Tsugi Ashi - Walking by bringing one foot up to another

Tsukuri - Entry into the opponent

Tsurite - Lifting Hand 

 

U

 

Uchi (打ち ) - Strike

Uchi (内 ) - Inside/inner

Uchi-Komi - Repeated practice entering for a throw without completing it

Ude (腕 ) - Arm

Ude-kansetsu-waza (腕関節技・業 ) - Arm locking techniques

Uke (受け・請け ) - The defender or person receiving the technique, Recieve/reciever (ie, opponent to tori in a demonstration)

Ukemi (受身 ) - Breakfall techniques, Breakfalling (literally uke = "to recieve")

Uki (浮き ) - Floating

Uki-goshi (浮き腰 ) - Floating hip throw

Uki-otoshi (浮き落とし ) - Floating drop

Uki-waza (浮き技・業 ) - Floating techniques

Ura (裏 ) - Reverse or underside

Ura-nage (裏投げ ) - Rear throw

Ura-ken (裏拳 ) - Backfist strike

Ushiro (後ろ ) - Backward, rear

Ushiro-dori (後ろ取り・捕り ) - Attack from behind

Ushiro Sabaki - Back movement control

Ushiro Ukemi - Falling Backward

 

V

 

W

 

Waki (脇 ) - Side or Armpit

Wakibara (脇腹 ) - Flank/floating ribs (Literally: Side stomach)

Waki-Gatame (脇固め ) - Side armlock using the armpit for leverage

Waki-No-Kamae (脇の構え ) - Side posture when using a katana

Wakizashi (脇差 ) - shortsword (Also referred to as a kodachi or a shoto)

Waza (技・業 ) - Technique

Waza-Ari - Half point, (Four points in Freestyle Judo)

Wazaari-Awasete Ippon - Two Wazaaris for the win 

 

X

 

Y

 

Yame! (止め! ) - Stop!

Yami (闇 ) - To cover or conceal one's intentions

Yami-uchi (闇討ち ) - To make a sneak attack (Sucker punching)

Yawara (柔・和 ) - Another term for jujutsu

Yoko (横 ) - Side

Yoko Geri (横蹴り ) - Side kick

Yoko-Kaiteri-Ukemi - Sideways rolling break fall

Yoko Ukemi - Falling Sideways

Yon (四 ) - Four

Yoroi-Kumiuchi (鎧組討 ) - See Kacchu Yawara. Armoured close combat

Yoshi - Resume action 

Yubi - finger 

Yubi-waza (指技・業 ) - Finger techniques

Yudansha (有段者 ) – Black belts members / dan grades

Yuko - Less than a waza-ari, (Two points in Freestyle Judo)

Yusei Gachi - Win by judge's decision

 

Z

 

Zanshin (残心 ) - Vigilance or awareness after a technique has been performed.

Zarei - Kneeling salutation

 

 


Login Form